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- Presence of others: (Coach, Senior coach, Fans, Scouts Other)
- Performance Lifestyle (Sacrifices, Education, Friends, Moving away from home)
- Rewards (Contracts, Opportunities to develop)
- Consequences (Threat of release, physical)
- Competition (Games/Training, Team mates, Opposition)
- Self orientated (Perfectionism, High standards)
- Public self-consciousness (High standards expected from others)
- Physical (Fatigue, Size)
- Cognitive Decision Skills (Learning/Demands, Receiving ball under pressure, Time)
It’s important that when we work with players, we understand what their pressure is. So, what is it within their environment, that’s specific to their rage that can influence how important it is for them to perform? Within a study I conducted this year with Academy players, we identified two major themes; external pressures within the environment and the internal factors that are manifested by the player through their internal thoughts and feelings.
Within the external pressures, we had the presence of others ( which included the coach senior coaches fans and others, which included media or pundits and Scouts), we have the performance lifestyle (which referred to place sacrifices such as education, moving away from home or missing time with friends), we had the rewards (in form of the contracts or opportunities to develop such as visiting places like St. George’s Park or gaining a captaincy role), consequences (which were in the form of being released from the Football Club or physical incentives) and then the presence of competition (this referred to games or training such as tournaments, competition against their teammates and competition against the opposition). The internal pressures, we identified self-orientated pressures (so players own expectations of what they want to achieve), public self-consciousness pressure (which referred to players perception of what others expected of them, physical pressure (which related to fatigue in size) and then the cognitive decision skills (which included learning demands, receiving the ball under pressure and time) In line with Erikson’s theory of development, what we did identify was that over the chronological ages as players matured, the differences and significance in each pressure changed.